Alexander Polyhistor, another ancient historian recording a quote from an even older historian Eupolemus on the Jewish presence in Assyria as is recorded by Eusebius, stated,

Eupolemus in his book Concerning the Jews of Assyria says that the city Babylon was first founded by those who escaped from the Deluge; and that they were giants, and built the tower renowned in history. But when this had been overthrown by the act of God, the giants were dispersed over the whole earth.1)Eusebius of Caesarea, Praeparatio Evangelica (The Preparation of the Gospel), Bk. 9, chap. 17; quoting Alexander Polyhistor who cites Eupolemus; accessible at

The connection of the Tower being built were Babylon stood is again identified, and that this “tower [is] renowned in history” because every nation knew of it as part of their own history since their ancestors departed from it. This account neglects to mention how the languages were confused and errs in the claim that giants escaped the Deluge. The Bible mentions giants (Genesis 6:4) but indicates the purpose for the Deluge was to destroy them with only Noah and his three sons and wives surviving the Flood (2 Peter 2:5; as well as the entirety of Genesis 10 which records the descendants of Noah’s sons).

Ancient authors around the world had this history recorded. The Greek Sibyls—which Lactantius acknowledged “that the Sibyls were ten in number…”2)Lactanius, The Divine Institutes, Bk. 1, chap. VI; The Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. VII, Hendrickson Publishers (Grand Rapids, MI , 2012), p. 16; accessible at —made different statements relating to this event of which we have two surviving. One recorded by Josephus a first century Jewish historian, saying, “When all men were of one language, some of them built a tower, as if they would thereby ascend up to heaven, but the gods sent storms of wind and overthrew the tower, and gave every one his peculiar language; and for this reason it was that the city was called Babylon.”3)Quoting the Sibyl; Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 1.4.3; The Complete Works of Josephus, Master books, 2008, p. 9; Here is further evidence that the Tower is Babylon, but this expression makes the common blunder of polytheism and also mistakes when stating “some of them built a tower” when all other versions seems emphatic about the universal efforts of mankind to build this Tower.
This same quote was extracted by Eusebius, who follows it immediately with a citation from Hestiaeus, a student of Plato, saying:

And the plain which is called Sennaar in the country of Babylonia is mentioned by Hestiaeus, who speaks thus: “But those of the priests who escaped took the sacred things of Zeus Enyalios, and came to Sennaar in Babylonia: afterwards they were scattered thence, and everywhere formed their communities from speaking the same language, and took possession of the land which each lighted upon.”4)Hestiaeus, as cited by Eusebius of Caesarea, Praeparatio Evangelica (The Preparation of the Gospel), Bk. 9, chap. 15; Cf. Rzach, Sibylline Oracles, iii. 97-110; accessible at

Hestiaeus makes no mention of the Tower, only that they came to Babylon and were subsequently dispersed from there and formed communities based on speaking the similar language. This is also indicated in Scripture after the Flood, “they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there” (Genesis 11:2). As well as Genesis chapter 10 expressing the communities were families that spoke a common tongue.
Another Sibyl stated,

When are fulfilled the threats of the great God, With which He threatened men, when formerly In the Assyrian land they built a tower, And all were of one speech, and wished to rise Even till they climbed unto the starry heaven, Then the Immortal raised a mighty wind And laid upon them strong necessity; For when the wind threw down the mighty tower, Then rose among mankind fierce strife and hate.
One speech was changed to many dialects, And earth was filled with divers tribes and kings.5)Sibyl Quoted by Theophilus of Antioch, Theophilus To Autolycus II. xxxi, transl. by M. Dods in The Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. II (Grand Rapids, 1962), p. 106; accessible at

Represented in the quotation is monotheism and that all men were in unison while building this Tower and wars arose after it was overthrown. The only unbiblical comment here is that this God had previously threatened man, presumably about building the Tower. This was not the Sybil quoted by Josephus; however, Josephus is of the same impression that God did indeed threaten mankind. “God also commanded them to send colonies abroad, for the thorough peopling of the earth, that they might not raise seditions among themselves, but might cultivate a great part of the earth, and enjoy its fruits after a plentiful manner. But they were so ill instructed that they did not obey God; for which reason they fell into calamities, and were made sensible, by experience, of what sin they had been guilty: for when they flourished with a numerous youth, God admonished them again to send out colonies; but they, imagining the prosperity they enjoyed was not derived from the favor of God, but supposing that their own power was the proper cause of the plentiful condition they were in, did not obey him.”6)Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 1.4.1; The Complete Works of Josephus, Master books, 2008, p. 8; This parallel of thought is intriguing because it shows Jewish tradition in line with the Sybil which was not quoted by Josephus on this topic.

One more sibylline oracle is recorded as stating, “And all mankind one language only knew… And now all intercourse, By some occult and overruling power, Ceased among men. By utterance they strove, Perplexed and anxious, to disclose their mind, But their lip failed them; and in lieu of words Produced a painful babbling sound: the place Was thence called Babel.”7)Hodges, E. R., trans. 1876. Cory’s Ancient Fragments of the Phoenician, Carthaginian, Babylonian, Egyptian and other Authors. London: Reeves & Turner, 76. This fragment does not reveal much information accept that God is ignored complete as implied that some occult power caused the confusion of tongues. Yet it is one more voice of antiquity that validates the historicity of the Tower of Babel.
A Roman from the first century B.C., Gaius Julius Hyginus, wrote,

Inachus, son of Oceanus, begat Phoroneus by his sister Argia, and he is said to have been the first of mortals to rule. Men for many centuries before lived without town or laws, speaking one tongue under the rule of Jove. But after Mercury had explained the languages of men (when he is called [h]ermeneutes, “interpreter,” for Mercury in Greek is called Hermes; he too, divided the nations), then discord arose among mortals, which was not pleasing to Jove. And so he gave over the first rule to Phoroneus, because he was first to make offerings to Juno.”8)Hyginus, Fabulae, 143; Trans. by Mary Grant, accessed at

Multiple gods are mentioned in conjunction with their different works to accomplish all this. Mercury/Hermes is responsible for both explaining the new languages and dividing the nations, presumably by changing the tongues. Again we see peace among men until “discord arose” after the languages were changed.
Different accounts of the Tower of Babel, confusing of tongues, and dividing of nations, are so numerous around the world; Bodie Hodge documented 23 in his book Tower of Babel: The Cultural History of Our Ancestors.9) Graph adapted from Bodie Hodge, Tower of Babel: The Cultural History of Our Ancestors, Master Books, (Green Forest, AR, 2013), pp. 224-226 his sources are listed below
1. Pam Sheppard, “Tongues Twisting Tales,” Answers Magazine, Feb. 2008;
2. Plato, Critias, p. 479
3. Dr. David M. Jones, The Lost History of the Incas, Anness Publishers, 2007
4. Charles Martin, Flood Legends: Global Clues of Common Events, Master Books, (Green Forest AR), 2009
5. Maria Leach, The Beginning: Creation Myths Around the World, Funk & Wagnalls, 1956, p. 81, 124, 131, 237
6. George Smith, Chaldean Account of Genesis, 1880, p. 29
7. Edgar A. Truax, “Genesis According to the Miao People,” Acts & Facts. 1991, 20 (4).;


References   [ + ]